A sub-optimal standard persisting Qwerty keyboard
Winning a standards war VHS vs Betamax
Closed vs Open platform Mac vs Windows vs Linux

Growth routes
Adding services to products GE/IBM

Unbundling of distribution and content Newspapers, Telcos, TC channel

Business models
Razor/blade model HP/Gilette/U-Haul

Amazon – leveraging assets into other businesses

Etsy – Mass customisation

Lego – users become product developers

Threadless – community-sourcing T-shirt designs; weightless business model

Xerox in the 1950s – leasing, not selling equipment

start-up strategy
Solving chicken & Egg Facebook
Free penetration them commercialise Google/Twitter/Facebook
Free-mium FT/Dropbox/Survey Monkey
Outsource everything Threadless
Beg, Borrow and Steal key IP Microsoft and MSDos

Competitive strategy
Bundling as a competitive weapon Microsoft Windows and Internet Explorer vs Netscape
Locking up capacity Apple iPod buying up hard drive capacity

Analogies from outside business

Lego bricks
Spread of an infectious disease


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